Gulkana Hatchery

The Gulkana Hatchery is a state-owned hatchery established in 1973 by the ADF&G Fisheries Rehabilitation, Enhancement and Development (FRED) Division.  PWSAC manages and operates the facility for ADF&G under a 20-year professional services agreement at no cost to the state.  PWSAC assumed management and operational control of the hatchery in 1993.  It is located 260 miles from the Gulf of Alaska at the base of the Alaska Range, near the headwaters of the Gulkana River.  The inland hatchery can be found near Paxson, 250 miles northeast of Anchorage and 177 miles south of Fairbanks on the Richardson Highway.

The 1971 discovery of spawning sockeye salmon in several warm water springs, adjacent to the East Fork of the Gulkana River, by ADF&G biologists, first led to the exploration of enhancement possibilities for Copper River sockeye salmon.  After two years of water quality sampling and research into the most cost efficient and low maintenance methods of incubation, streamside incubators were determined to be the best approach.  In 1973 the first incubator, a 4’x 4’x8’ plywood box was buried along the spring and loaded with 225,000 eggs.  With a survival rate of 79% from green egg to fry the first year, significant enhancement at this location was recognized along with the potential for future expansion.

From 1973 to 1980 the hatchery capacity expanded yearly, while continuing to focus on research in sockeye culture and incubator design.  During this time, user group demand continued to escalate, while natural production declined.  In 1980, with 20 incubators in operation, the emphasis moved from research to production.  By 1984, Gulkana became the largest sockeye fry production facility worldwide, with egg takes of 26 million.  GH is currently permitted for 36.75 million sockeye salmon eggs annually.

Gary Martinek is the Gulkana Hatchery Manager; he leads a permanent staff of four along with a dedicated seasonal staff of up to 16 people from April to October.

Gulkana I Hatchery Sockeye Salmon Production Summary

Brood Year
Green Eggs
Fry Released
Returning Adults
Fry-Adult Survival
1973 225,800 179,311 305 0.17%
1974 1,266,552 886,556 2,995 0.34%
1975 1,276,570 728,681 8,597 1.18%
1976 1,288,142 627,170 7,114 1.13%
1977 1,361,149 581,277 6,194 1.07%
1978 1,320,472 1,040,563 6,594 0.63%
1979 3,563,568 2,446,057 12,795 0.52%
1980 6,228,897 5,249,173 29,226 0.56%
1981 9,166,596 8,033,217 57,225 0.71%
1982 10,931,889 9,782,684 83,306 0.85%
1983 13,033,894 10,904,209 99,733 0.92%
1984 26,770,105 19,000,532 122,606 0.65%
1985 31,639,816 23,585,594 197,800 0.84%
1986 28,694,258 22,397,733 233,837 1.04%
1987 33,395,562 21,221,745 221,122 1.04%
1988 35,119,881 25,755,148 214,871 0.83%
1989 35,906,178 25,155,016 247,592 0.98%
1990 30,610,774 22,102,411 285,295 1.29%
1991 36,051,683 26,032,508 381,326 1.46%
1992 19,293,903 13,019,534 379,446 2.91%
1993 35,184,079 26,266,840 632,757 2.41%
1994 36,056,012 28,309,027 396,439 1.40%
1995 36,022,942 28,850,917 346,868 1.20%
1996 35,492,796 30,403,059 247,760 0.81%
1997 35,704,134 30,958,683 349,515 1.13%
1998 35,544,780 29,374,150 357,654 1.22%
1999 34,955,569 20,974,453 69,295 0.33%
2000 13,877,677 12,605,539 128,291 1.02%
2001 32,404,544 24,497,821 387,804 1.52%
2002 34,888,259 24,969,782 167,679 0.67%
2003 35,059,219 26,019,038 194,710 0.75%
2004 6,579,875 5,577,880 92,113 1.65%
2005 34,685,452 18,751,871 426,074 2.27%
2006 34,752,993 20,860,000 662,350 3.18%
2007 28,700,000 20,640,000 524,441 1.23%
2008 31,900,000 20,660,000 Age-4: 88,025 0.38%
2009 33,090,000 20,680,000
2010 30,100,000 20,640,000
2011 34,700,000 20,180,000
2012 33,100,000

Gulkana I Hatchery – Paxson Lake Sockeye Salmon Production Summary


Brood Year

Fry Released

Total Return

Fry-Adult Survival
1973 79,691 135 0.17%
1974 785,110 1,996 0.25%
1975 627,081 7,582 1.21%
1976 514,922 6,080 1.18%
1977 477,219 5,085 1.07%
1978 940,974 5,561 0.59%
1979 1,105,397 9,689 0.88%
1980 3,388,682 14,936 0.44%
1981 5,985,270 38,301 0.64%
1982 5,470,056 58,977 1.08%
1983 6,162,450 55,878 0.91%
1984 9,261,708 66,893 0.72%
1985 8,588,509 91,489 1.07%
1986 9,905,907 88,108 0.89%
1987 6,204,332 92,766 1.50%
1988 10,105,238 68,675 0.68%
1989 13,298,695 106,481 0.80%
1990 10,522,819 128,268 1.22%
1991 10,563,621 125,533 1.19%
1992 5,296,017 133,356 2.52%
1993 9,485,449 191,643 2.02%
1994 10,917,116 124,849 1.14%
1995 10,717,858 43,635 0.41%
1996 10,899,739 41,097 0.38%
1997 10,283,729 108,609 1.06%
1998 10,198,541 118,737 1.16%
1999 9,342,869 51,746 0.55%
2000 6,526,358 41,707 0.64%
2001 10,517,836 122,478 1.16%
2002 10,009,297 68,164 0.68%
2003 11,084,961 93,455 0.84%
2004 1,874,585 23,520 1.25%
2005 4,053,335 69,759 1.79%
2006 4,860,000 141,765 2.92%
2007 4,660,000 162,015 3.48%
2008 4,660,000 Age-4: 18,718 0.40%
2009 4,680,000
2010 4,660,000
2011 4,660,000

Gulkana I Hatchery – Crosswind Lake Sockeye Salmon Production Summary


Brood Year

Fry Released

Total Return

Fry-Adult Survival
1984 1,287,042 2,188 0.17%
1987 2,487,396 4,229 0.17%
1988 3,130,373 25,967 0.83%
1989 4,906,005 85,806 1.75%
1990 5,469,759 125,046 2.29%
1991 8,420,351 245,184 2.91%
1992 5,061,968 233,252 4.61%
1993 9,144,382 422,852 4.62%
1994 9,973,600 251,081 3.38%
1995 9,732,911 285,248 2.93%
1996 10,516,107 203,166 1.93%
1997 10,512,299 232,757 2.21%
1998 9,984,392 211,145 2.11%
1999 8,331,080 6,094 0.07%
2000 5,585,665 85,869 1.54%
2001 8,174,754 235,205 2.88%
2002 8,360,966 90,602 1.08%
2003 8,359,115 90,362 1.08%
2004 3,703,295 68,593 1.85%
2005 10,017,211 338,248 3.38%
2006 10,000,000 489,894 4.90%
2007 9,980,000 324,282 3.25%
2008 10,000,000 Age-4: 63,979 0.64%
2009 10,000,000
2010 10,000,000
2011 9,570,000

Gulkana I Hatchery – Summit Lake Sockeye Salmon Production Summary


Brood Year

Fry Released

Total Return

Fry-Adult Survival
1979 1,340,660 3,106 0.23%
1980 1,860,491 14,290 0.77%
1981 2,047,947 18,924 0.92%
1982 4,312,628 24,329 0.56%
1983 4,741,759 43,856 0.92%
1984 8,451,782 53,725 0.64%
1985 14,999,085 95,648 0.64%
1986 12,491,826 145,729 1.17%
1987 12,026,642 124,127 1.03%
1988 12,004,491 120,229 1.00%
1989 6,445,011 55,305 0.86%
1990 6,109,833 31,982 0.52%
1991 7,048,536 10,608 0.15%
1992 2,661,549 12,838 0.48%
1993 7,637,009 18,261 0.24%
1994 7,418,311 20,090 0.27%
1995 8,400,148 17,984 0.21%
1996 8,987,213 3,497 0.04%
1997 10,162,655 8,149 0.08%
1998 9,191,217 27,772 0.30%
1999 3,300,504 11,455 0.35%
2000 493,516 715 0.14%
2001 5,805,231 14,348 0.25%
2002 6,599,519 8,913 0.14%
2003 6,574,962 10,893 0.17%
2004 -0- -0-
2005 4,681,325 18,067 0.39%
2006 6,000,000 30,691  0.51%
2007 6,000,000 38,144 0.64%
2008 6,000,000 Age-4: 5,328 0.09%
2009 6,000,000
2010 5,980,000
2011 5,950,000

Gulkana I Hatchery – Ten Mile Lake Sockeye Lake Production Summary


Brood Year

Fry Released

Total Return

Fry-Adult Survival
1973 99,620 169 0.17%
1974 101,446 999 0.98%
1975 101,600 1,015 0.99%
1976 112,248 1,034 0.92%
1977 104,058 1,109 1.07%
1978 99,589 1,033 1.04%

Gulkana II Hatchery Sockeye Salmon Production Summary


Brood Year

Green Eggs

Fry Released

Total Return

Fry-Adult Survival
1987 309,822 185,631 316 2.86%
1988 1,073,296 765,447 2,842 3.71%
1989 516,048 828,613 7,762 0.94%
1990 802,607 765,902 8,180 1.07%
1991 1,282,018 1,047,110 15,015 1.43%
1992 1,785,509 1,174,000 25,979 2.21%
1993 1,786,531 1,546,000 34,394 2.22%
1994 1,916,757 1,428,778 18,508 0.44%
1995 1,820,220 1,524,038 9,574 0.63%
1996 1,857,946 1,386,627 4,107 0.30%
1997 1,804,409 1,306,116 5,658 0.43%
1998 1,803,042 1,353,295 3,278 0.24%
1999 1,781,755 1,362,926 8,126 0.60%
2000 1,762,071 1,343,976 9,433 0.70%
2001 1,75,735 1,404,849 15,773 1.12%
2002 1,818,878 1,275,033 7,858 0.62%
2003 1,569,645 1,323,511 6,936 0.52%
2004 1,323,551 1,433,480 9,331 0.65%
2005 1,798,430 1,470,585 19,205 1.31%
2006 1,435,097 1,140,000 22,418 1.97%
2007 1,750,000 1,340,000 27,279 2.04%
2008 1,750,000 1,340,000 Age-4: 3,408 0.25%
2009 1,750,000 1,330,000
2010 1,750,000 1,340,000
2011 1,750,000 1,340,000
2012 1,750,000
 

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